Australia, officially referred to as the Union of Australia or the Commonwealth of Australia, is a nation located in the Southern Hemisphere. It encompasses the mainland continent of Australia, the island of Tasmania, and several other smaller islands scattered across the Indian and Pacific Oceans, making it the sixth largest country globally in terms of land area.
To the north of Australia lie East Timor, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea, while to the northeast are Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and the Solomon Islands. New Zealand is situated to the southeast.
The Torres Strait, with a minimum width of approximately 150 km, separates the mainland of the Commonwealth of Australia from the main island of Papua New Guinea. The closest distance from the Australian island of Boigu to Papua New Guinea is about 5 kilometers. As of June 30, 2022, the estimated population stood at 25,978,935, with a majority residing in urban centers along the east coast.
Australia stands as one of the most developed countries globally, ranking fourteenth in terms of economy and boasting the ninth highest GDP per capita. The nation’s military expenditure ranks twelfth worldwide. With a Human Development Index placing it fifth, Australia excels in various domains including quality of life, health, education, economic liberty, and the preservation of civil liberties and political rights.