Iceland, a Nordic island nation situated between the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans, straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge connecting North America and Europe. Despite being culturally and politically aligned with Europe, it stands as the least densely populated country in the region.
Reykjavík, the capital and largest city, accommodates around 36% of the nation’s approximately 380,000 inhabitants. Icelandic is the official language.
The country’s location on a tectonic plate rift results in remarkable geological features such as geysers and frequent volcanic activities. Its interior showcases a volcanic plateau characterized by expanses of sand and lava fields, alongside mountains and glaciers.
Numerous glacial rivers traverse the lowlands en route to the sea. Despite a latitude just below the Arctic Circle, Iceland experiences a temperate climate due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream. Summers remain cool, and most islands maintain a polar climate, owing to its high latitude and maritime impact.