The Gaza–Israel conflict is a component of the localized Israeli–Palestinian conflict, but it also serves as a stage for power struggles involving regional players such as Egypt, Iran, Turkey, and Qatar. These countries support different factions within the conflict, reflecting the broader regional tensions, including the rivalry between Iran and Saudi Arabia, as well as the dispute between Qatar and Saudi Arabia, along with the ongoing crisis in Egyptian-Turkish relations.
The origins of the conflict can be traced back to the election of the Islamist political party Hamas in the Gaza Strip in 2005 and 2006. It further escalated with the division of the Palestinian Authority’s government into the Fatah-led administration in the West Bank and the Hamas-led government in Gaza. This division ultimately led to the violent ousting of Fatah from Gaza after losing to Hamas in elections.
The conflict has been marked by Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, Israeli airstrikes on Gaza, and the joint Egyptian-Israeli blockade of Gaza, all of which have exacerbated the situation. The international community views attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure that fail to distinguish between non-combatants and military targets as violations of international law.