The Western Wall is a section of an ancient limestone wall situated in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is a part of the broader retaining wall that encloses the hill known as the Temple Mount, a significant site for both Jews and Christians.
Slightly over half of the wall’s total height, including the 17 courses located below street level, originates from the conclusion of the Second Temple era and is thought to have been initiated by Herod the Great.
The lower courses are constructed using very large stone blocks that are characteristic of the Herodian period. The courses made up of medium-sized stones above them were added during the Umayyad period, while the uppermost courses, consisting of smaller stones, are of more recent origin, particularly from the Ottoman period.