England is a constituent country within the United Kingdom, situated in the British Isles.
It shares its land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north, while across the Irish Sea to the west and northwest lies Ireland. To the south, England is separated from continental Europe by the English Channel, and to the east by the North Sea.
This nation encompasses approximately 62% of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic and includes more than 100 smaller islands like the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The region known today as England was initially settled by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic era, but it derives its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe that established themselves during the 5th and 6th centuries.
England achieved political unification as a single state in the 10th century and has left a profound cultural and legal legacy on the global stage, particularly through the Age of Discovery, which commenced in the 15th century.